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Lyrica into moot generalizations in the area of M. were created around the going forward of physics, chemistry, and biology at the bring over of the 18th and 19th centuries: the finding of the role of oxygen in combustion and respiration, the law of economy and transfiguration of energy, the well-spring of the synthesis of organic substances (1st half of the 19th century), which was a shock to vitalism, the maturing by J. Liebig of the doctrine of well-mannered nutrition, the study of chemical processes in a living living thing, which led to the evolution of biochemistry, etc.

Lyrica origination of the 19th century was the maturing of the cubicle theory (see Chamber theory) of the order of organisms (J. Purkine, M. Ya. Schleiden and T. Schwann and others), which allowed R. Virchow to create a theory of cellular pathology (See Cellular pathology), according to which disease is a purely local manage, its essence is morphological changes in cellular elements; M.'s most leading charge is to determine the transpire "where the disease sits." At one old hat, such an approach played a complimentary capacity: the mental image of ??the disease began to be associated with invariable changes in the framework of cells and organs, the canon of chamber degeneration arose, uncountable forms of tumors and other diseases were described. No matter what, R. Virkhov, and chiefly his students and followers, could not refrain from universalizing the laws they discovered. The issue was an enlightenment of the animal organism as a union of "cubicle states", all human pathology was reduced to cubicle pathology.

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Multitudinous contemporaries of R. Virkhov not however did not accept this theory, but criticized its root principles, recognized anatomical-localistic thinking as little at a time when it relieve seemed unshakable. Pseudo belief, reflecting the complex relationships between the being and the environs, was facilitated before the successes of evolutionary theory (catch sight of Darwinism). Recognition of the connection of man with animals led to the event that doctors began to put research on animals more substantially to perceive the laws of human subsistence in conditions of vigour and illness. K. Bernard in the centre of the 19th century worked on the creation of exploratory M., combining physiology, pathology and therapy. Not later than many studies of the efficacy of drugs, substances and poisons on the density, K. Bernard laid the foundations of experiential pharmacology and toxicology..


  1. John Prips | 27 apr 2021 | Reply
    The process of differentiation of medical knowledge was accompanied by the formation of an integrating discipline - general pathology, which studies the patterns of the occurrence and development of pathological processes. Initially, her main methods were clinical observations, description of symptoms, systematization and generalization of practical medical experience. Thanks to the successes of pathological anatomy, general pathology in the first half of the 19th century began to develop in the pathomorphological direction, the most prominent representative of which was A.I. Polunin, the organizer of the 1st independent department of general pathology at Moscow University (1869).
    • Anna Smith | 25 apr 2019 | Reply

      This direction, subsequently enriched by histological, biochemical and experimental research methods, was developed in the works of S.M. Lukyanov, K.A.L. Ashoff and others. Its original continuation was the clinical and anatomical direction of the Moscow school of pathologists (MN Nikiforov, AI Abrikosov, IV Davydovsky). Petersburg (MM Rudnev and others) and Kiev schools of pathologists have chosen the path of experimental pathomorphology.

      V.V. Pashutin organized the department of general pathology with a pronounced experimental physiological direction at Kazan University (1874), then at the St. Petersburg Medical Surgical Academy (1879) and created the 1st scientific school of pathophysiologists. In the future, this direction became dominant, in most departments of general pathology in Russia, which led to the renaming of the discipline to pathological physiology. A similar direction was developed in Germany by the experimental pathologist J. Kongheim.
      • Tom Sawyer | 25 apr 2021 | Reply
        I.I.Mechnikov substantiated the concept of inflammation (see Inflammation) as a form of adaptive reaction of living tissue to irritation, developed the foundations of comparative pathology and laid the foundation for a general biological direction in M., the further development of which made it possible to reveal essential laws and mechanisms of the organism's adaptability in conditions of pathology , aging processes (See Aging), etc.
  2. Tom Johnson | 25 apr 2019 | Reply
    Many of the Russian pathologists developed a clinical and experimental line of research; for example, the work of the school of A.B. Fokht made a great contribution to the study of the so-called reserve forces of the body and compensatory adaptations in pathology of the lymphatic, endocrine, urinary and especially cardiovascular systems; experimental models of coronary circulation disorders were developed (see Coronary circulation), the importance of interoception (see Interoreception) in the origin of blood circulation disorders was studied.

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